|3) Summary of Kurokawa's Proposal Kurokawa, since the 1960's, pleaded for the Paradigm Shift from the age of the machine principle to the age of life principle. His work is the embodiment of Metabolism and Symbiosis, which are the two most important concepts of the age of life principle.
3.1. Proposal of the Metabolic City (city of growth and change) Since the new capital will go through rapid growth, Kurokawa's plan proposes a Linear Zoning System (Linear Land Use) instead of the Radius Pattern, which has a core at the center of the city. The Linear Zoning System is based on a well-balanced composition of each function of the city at every stage of its growth.
3.2 Proposal of the Master System The traditional master plans have always given a great importance to the process of finalizing the ideal form. In contrast with the traditional idea of these master plans, Kurokawa's proposal (Master System) is treating the question of what would be the city of 21st century. He proposes a new system that analyzes and reviews the situation every five years, and modifies the plan in a flexible way.
3.3 Proposal of the Symbiotic City
a) Kurokawa's proposal aims to preserve and redevelop the existing city (its population is approximately 30,0000), and create a new city at the south and the east sides of the Ishim River, enabling the Symbiosis of the History and the Future.
b) It proposes to cluster the new housings at both sides of the river, which will feature the symbiosis of the river and the city.
c) It proposes a Train City (Business City), in which the existing train station will be redeveloped. A forest, extending from this Train City to the existing park, will constitute the city's central axis, realizing the symbiosis between the forest and the city.
d) The existing city is a compound of various functions of the city such as housing, business, culture, leisure, and education, aiming to shift into a Symbiotic City.
e) The Business City and the Capitol (Government City) will be developed in the south side of the Ishim River. The triangular shape of the new city center cluster will enable to interweave and live in symbiosis with the forest.
f) The presidential offices, which are The Diet Building, the Supreme Court, the National Guesthouse, and the Presidential House, constitute the architecture of Abstract Symbiosis. These buildings have geometric forms simplified to their greatest extent, but at the same time, each form has all the significance of the Kazakhstan's historical symbols. This proposal aims to create the symbiosis of the Local and the Universal within the city and its architecture.
3.4 Protection against disasters
a) A big balancing pond will be constructed in order to protect against floods due to snow broth of the Ishim River. At the same time, artificial lands and sky gardens will protect the new city's business area and the presidential offices.
b) The ring roads surrounding the housing area are 3 meter high above from the surface, and constitute a bank. Therefore, it is possible to protect the housing area against floods even with the current land level.
3.5 Eco-Media City
a) A large-scale forest is to be formed in the South of the city, in order to protect the city from dust in windy seasons.
b) The manmade forest (Eco-forest) will stimulate Eco-industry, biotechnology, and Eco-Media industry.
c) A recycling system will be implemented, such as garbage recycling and rainwater recycling, in order to challenge for a sustainable city of the 21st Century.
4. Phasing for the realization
4.1. Kisho Kurokawa architect and associates and local teams of architects and experts based in Astana will form a joint team for the master plan and design of the new city.
4.2 The first stage will consist of preparing the city's infrastructure and the main facilities such as housing, the airport, the station and the business center. In the second stage, private investors including investors from foreign countries will begin the construction in the housing area and the city center.
4.3 The new capital aims to reach 1 million inhabitants by the year 2030.
* The International Cities Award for Ecellence, 2002