|The Twentieth Century as the Age of Machine
The Architecture of the Age of Life
The Twentieth Century as the Age of Machine
Thirty-three years have passed since I began my creative work as an architect. My work over those thirty-three years has consistently raised a challenge to the age of machine and heralded the arrival of the architecture of the age of life.
Industrial society was the ideal of Modern Architecture. The steam engine, the train, the automobile, and the airplane freed humanity from labor and permitted it to begin its journey into the realm of unknown. The Model T Ford made the possession of an automobile, until then the privilege of the rich, available to the masses. The main supporters of industrial society were the members of the middle class, who benefited the most from the age of the machine.
Le Corbusier declared that the home was a machine for living, and Sergei Einstein called the cinema a machine. Marinetti, the Italian Futurist said that a poem is a machine. Le Corbusier was found of placing the latest-model automobile in front of his completed works, and the Futurist city of Antonio Sant'Elia was an expression of the dynamism of the machine. Not only for artists and the architects but for the general public as well the machine was a longed-for savior that would blaze the trail for humanity's future.
The age of the machine valued models, norms, and ideals. The success of the Model T offers abundant proof of this. By mass-producing a selected model of a product, the masses could be provided a homogeneous satisfaction, an equally distributed happiness, and as the machine seemed to promise the rosiest of futures, no one thought to doubt it. In this manner, the middle class shaped itself into the ideal market for the machines it mass produced. As a natural result of this evolution, architects saw their clients gradually change from royalty and the extremely wealthy to the growing middle class.
The international architecture that became the prototype of modern architecture was also an expression of the models and norms of the age of the machine. The international style of modern architecture, created by the capitalists who manufactured those products and the middle class that used them.
We must not allow ourselves to forget that the models, norms, and ideals of the age of the machine were supported by the universality that represents the spirit of European civilization. From Greece and Rome to the present day, norms, ideals, and universality have been fundamental concepts of Western thought. The "Catholic" of the Roman Catholic Church means, in fact, "universal".
The age of the machine was the age of the European spirit, the age of universality. We can say, then, that the twentieth century, the age of the machine, has been an age of Eurocentrism and logos-centrism. Logos-centrism posits that there is only one ultimate truth for all the world, and that it can be demonstrated with the human intelligence. This attitude results in a society that places science and technology, the relegates art, religion, and culture, fields to which feelings and sensitivities contribute, to an inferior position.
The extraordinary strides we have made in science and technology, in economic development and increased productivity, are the results of this emphasis on our powers of reason. The twentieth century, the age of the machine, created by the emphasis on our powers of reason, gave birth to Eurocentrism and two great ideologies of the century, communism and capitalism. There can be no doubt that the twentieth century has been a struggle by European civilization and the spirit that created it to dominate the world, and that the aim of that culture and spirit was in fact to dominate the world. If there were indeed a single truth for all the world, it would only be right for it to be spread around the globe, and that assumption, the rivalry of capitalism and communism and the pattern of thought that identities becoming Europeanized with progress must also be recognized as true and right.
The great reform that took place in Japan from the end of the Edo period (1600-1868) through the Meiji period (1868-1912) as we modernized and internationalized was modeled on Western civilization. It was attempt to absorb that civilization and to approach it as closely and quickly as possible. It had no other goal than to measure progress by degree of Europeanization. Japanese architects of the time debated ardently about which style of Western style. The well-known Western-style buildings of the period that survive today - Tokyo Station, the Bank of Japan, the old Supreme Court, and the Yokohama Seikin Bank - were all products of the policy of modernization in nineteenth-century Japan. Western food and Western clothing enjoyed a vogue. Modernization was pursued in every field by adopting Western modes and models - in the educational system, the economy, government policies, the constitution and legal system.
This worship of the West, and the inferiority complex that is the other side of the same coin, persists in large measure in postwar Japan, and for the architects of the generations of Togo Murano, Seiichi Shirai, Kunio Maekawa, and Kenzo Tange, Western architecture was an absolute, almost sacred ideal. When Murano received a new commission, he always began working by traveling to Europe and sketching design details of the works of famous Western architects. This tendency continues today with Arata Isozaki and younger generation of architects, who, in truly strange and inexplicable twist of fate, prize knowledge of Western architecture yet have an aversion of discussion their own architectural tradition. This is nothing but a complex that has developed in the context of overwhelming worship of the West and its achievements.
Rostow, an American economist whose ideas were influential during the period of Japan's high growth during the 1960s, advocated a theory of stages of economic development. The economies of the developing countries would pass through stages of maturity and offshore economic activity to a period of high-level mass consumption. Rostow's economic theories are comparable to Darwin's theory of the evolution of species. In the age of the machine, when economic achievement is valued most highly, the cultures of nations with developing economies come to be looked on as developing cultures, as archaic impediments to modernization. Architects from Japan or other non-Western countries who wish to be on the cutting edge distance themselves from their own history and tradition, or else reject them altogether. This is the toll their Eurocentric complex has taken.
The architecture of the twentieth century, the age of the machine was based on this view of progress. The architecture of the age of the machine was also as architecture of the age of humanism. This same logos-centrism that so values the existence of reason regarded human beings as the sole possessors of that faculty. It ranked human beings next to divinity and it discounted the value of the lives of other animals, plants and living things. The world revolved around human existence, as the expression, "A human life is more valuable than the entire world" clearly reveals. Based on this anthropocentrism and logos-centrism, the pollution of the air, rivers, and seas, the destruction of forests, and the extinction of animals and plants were regarded as unavoidable events in the development of the technology and the economic activity necessary to support human society and its cities and building, which were regarded as eternal.
The idea of "architecture for architecture's sake" that we hear from Hans Hollein and Arata Isozaki has much in common with this logos-centrism. The architecture with a capital "A" that Isozaki advocates, architecture as form, Noam Chomsky'S deep linguistic structure and universal grammar are all examples of logos-centrism and the universality that characterized the age of the machine.
Humanism played an important role in the medieval period, when it liberated humankind from the age of god. But in the age of the machine, the human race has allowed itself to succumb to the delusion that, with machines in its employ, it has attained the role of god and can row rule the entire world, the entire universe. Today, humanism has become identical with human superiority and logos-centrism. This human superiority of the age of the machine is counterproductive in the age of life, with its emphasis on the environment and ecology.
Aesthetically speaking, the ideals of the age of the machine were economy, simplicity, precision, purity, multiplicity of function, abstraction, and clarity. The architecture of the machine as envisioned by Le Corbusier required the purity that we can see in his paintings. It had to exemplify a norm, just as the Parthenon did. And it had to possess the clarity of the harsh Mediterranean sun, which divides all into light and shade. The Parthenon is the definitive and eternal monument to the European spirit.
When Bruno Taut and Walter Gropius visited Japan and praised lse Shrine and Katsura Detached Palace as exemplifications of the norms of modern architecture, they were praising the simplicity of straight lines, the abstraction free of ornament that they saw there. (Of course, they focused only on those aspects of these works that reflected their own modernist convictions.)
Some argue that the formal aspects of modern architecture should be regarded as high-tech architecture (analogical, formal quotations from the machine as high technology). The forms of Russian Constructivism. The Pompidou Center of Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, and Norman Foster's Hong Kong Shanghai Bank all seems at first glance to be representative works of the age of machine, but in fact they are not old. While the architecture of the twentieth century, the age of the machine has multiple functions, is simple, economically efficient, and expresses the logos-centrism of the European spirit, the works mentioned above are not defined by structural rationality, efficiency, to economic demands. In them, the image of the machine exists as the building's surface; it is autonomous, and it acquires as decoration, represents an experiment in the transition period from the age of the machine to the future.
I have said that abstraction was one of the characteristics of the aesthetic of the age of the machine. Abstraction is common to all the arts of the period: modern architecture, modern painting, modern sculpture, modern literature, and modern philosophy.
When Le Corbusier discusses purism in art, he says that the world is composed of such abstract forms as cones, cylinders, and cubes. The simplicity so favoured by modern architecture was also a method for achieving this abstraction. The goal of industrialism - increasing production by simplification of the process - and the simplicity and clarity aimed for in modern architecture were regarded as the triumph of reason, in contrast to the plurality and variety of life. Modern architecture purposely sought to banish all historical expressions, decoration, topos, and regionalism because it was believed that abstraction was perfect expression of the spirit of the age of the machine.
Yet geometrical forms are not the exclusive possessions of modern architecture. In ancient cultures, geometrical forms - the pyramids of Egypt, the circle and square of the ancient Chinese Huanazi, the keyhole-shaped tomb mounds of China and Japan, and the conical Tower of Babel - were thought of an mystical forms that expressed the ultimate being of the universe. The French architect Claude-Nicolas Ledoux frequently employed geometrical forms in his works. Yet the circles and orbs that he used were more expression of symbolism and mysticism than "pure" abstractions. Abstraction certainly is one of the products of modern architecture and the modern spirit, but modern architecture does not enjoy exclusive possession of the cone, the circle, the sphere, or the cube. I would like to develop this idea further below, in the section on architecture of the age of life.
I have said that the age of machine is the age of the European spirit, and I would now like to enlarge on this. Edmund Husserl, in his "Die Krisis der europaischen Wissenschaften und die transcendentale Phanomenolofie," Philosophia,i(1936), defines the twentieth century, the age of the machine as the age of objective rationality. The fundamental nature of the natural science, geometry, physics, and psychology of the age of modern rationality, the twentieth century age of the machine, is to seek to objectivise the world, based on the conviction that a single objective truth underlies all reality. These sciences seek to reduce (or analyze) reality to the measurable. The world norm based on a unified world view. This is remarkably similar to the process through which a machine is reduced to its parts and standardized products are distributed universally throughout the world.
This view of the world, this objective rationality and modern rationalism was created and perpetuated by Galileo and his theories, Newton and his physics, Euclid and his geometry, Lavoisier and his physics, and Darwin and his biology. Common to all of these rational sciences is what is called the Bourbakian system or the axiomatic method, based on the assumption that an ultimate existence and objective methods of measurement exist. This objective rationalism represents the orthodox current of European thought. It is the main current, in which we find Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hegel, and the Cartesian linguists Chomsky and Habermas. The universalism of the Catholic Church, which is the back-bone of European Christianity, operates in a similar fashion. At the start of all is a single ideal existence - God. The dualism that lies at the base of this stream of thought is the principle of the machine that makes reductionism and analysis possible. The entire world is perceived as sets of opposing opposites - the part and the whole, the flesh and the spirit, science and art, good and evil, life and death, humanity and nature, intellect and feeling. The principle of majority rule, one of the basic tenets of democracy, is also a dualistic choice between yes and no. The most advanced technology of dualism is the computer. The principle by which thought can be simulated through the repeated choice between 1 and 0 at superhuman speeds must surely be the apogee of the fruits of dualism. In this dualistic world, ambiguous existence, vague zone, and multivalent zones are rejected. Contradictory elements, the symbiosis of opposing existence, and mixed states have been treated as chaotic or irrational.
The architecture and arts of the age of the machine have employed analysis, structuring, and organization to achieve a universal synthesis. This closely resembles the process of creating machine, in which parts are assembled to perform a certain function. Ambiguity, the intervention of foreign elements, accident, and multivalent elements cannot be permitted in a machine. Instructions must not be literary or poetic. They must be denotation. Introduction, connection, clarification, and coordination are important. The finished products are precisely defined, syntagmatic, in other worlds, linear connections are the norm.
Schools must be school-like, hospitals like hospitals, offices like offices, and homes like homes. But is there really any objective standard for school that defines what is school like? In fact, the differences among hospitals - hospitals for the aged, psychiatric hospitals, emergency facilities, examination and diagnostic facilities - may be more marked than the difference between a hospital and a school. In the real world, there is no abstract "humanity" with a capital "H". Humanity includes men, women, adults, children, Mr. A, Mrs.B - and no humanity exists apart from the many individuals who all together we call humanity.
The age of the machine, the twentieth century age of modernism, is wrestling with these many contradictions as it nears its end. The fact that the end of the age of the machine is approaching simultaneously with the end of Eurocentrism, of logos-centrism, and of industrial society has aroused unrest throughout the world.
Will the curtain on the twenty-first century be raised by revolutions in all of these realms? Will the new age begin with the rejection of all of the machine, the age of the European spirit? I don't think so. The new century will carry with is the burden of the previous century, which will exist in symbiosis with a new philosophy, a new technology.
The Architecture of the Age of Life
In contrast to the age of the machine, I call the twenty-first century the age of life. As I said earlier, my work over those thirty-three years has consistently raised a challenge to the age of the machine and heralded the arrival of architecture of the age of life. I found the Metabolism movement in 1959. I consciously selected the terms and key concepts of metabolism, metamorphosis, and because they were the vocabulary of life principles.
Machines do not grow, change, or metabolize of their accord. "Metabolism" was indeed an excellent choice for a key word to announce the beginning of the age of life.
The astonishing plurality of life stand in sharp contrast to concepts of the machine age such as homogeneity and universality. As a result of the combination of individual cells and the genetic information transmitted by the spiral configurations of DNA, each individual life is unique.
We are now questioning Darwin's theory of evolution. We must challenge the claim that human being - that is, the human species - exists at the peak of an evolutionary climb and that the economic prosperity and technological culture fashioned by our reason may rightly serve as the means of natural selection for other living beings. Labeling stage of development, such as undeveloped nations, semi-developed nations and developed nations, represents a notion of progress that is similar to Darwin's theory of evolution. As I wrote above, the American economist Rostow's theory of stages of economic development was supported by the concept of progress in the age of the machine. The economic and technological advancements of the age of the machine, when universality prevailed, are now the subjects of intense reflection and revision.
In the age of life, it is the very plurality of life that possesses a superior and rich worth. The rising interest in the environment and the new importance given ecology aim at preserving the diversity of life.
Life is the creation of meaning. The life of the individual and the diversity each species possesses is linked to the diversity of all of the different human cultures, languages, traditions, and arts that exist on the earth. In the coming age, the machine-age ideal of universality will be exchanged for a symbiosis of different cultures.
A new response to diversity is being demanded of the economic and technological sectors of society as well. We must make the creation of a new multipurpose culture, of a symbiosis of heterogeneous cultures, the goal of out economies and technologies. We must move from an age of economic assistance offered by the developed countries to the developing countries, and of the forced introduction of the cultures of the advanced nations to the "less developed nations" to aid aimed at the creation of a "developing". The idea of technology transfer, too, is another manifestation of the domination of the advanced countries, an extension of the "universalism" of the age of the machine. In the age of life it will be necessary to transform the technologies of the advanced nations and discover ways for them to exist in symbiosis historically existing traditional technologies of other regions. Instead of nuclear fission and fusion reactors becoming universal power sources, technology will have to be adapted and transformed in ways appropriate to each region.
In India even today, dried cow supplies most of the energy for cooking fires. The Indians regard cows as sacred beasts, and the use of cow dung for fuel is an inseparable part of Indian culture and life. As Indian energy policy, would it not be best to combine the use of atomic energy, hydroelectric power, and cow dung in the most efficient combination? This type of transformation of technology so that it exists in symbiosis with the traditional technologies and culture is necessary, just as the symbiosis of culture and technology is necessary. Such multifaceted responses from the economy and form technology are what we must expect of the economy and technology in the age of life.
The intercultural architecture that I advocate is the architecture of this type of the age of life. Intercultural architecture is a hybrid architecture, in which elements of different cultures exist in symbiosis, an architecture that exists in symbiosis with the environment through the symbiosis of tradition and the most advanced technology. Eisenman's concept of "softness" is intriguing in this context.
In the architecture of the age of the machine expressed function, the architecture of the age of life expresses meaning. The plurality of life is the plurality of genes. Differences are precisely the proof of life's existence. And it is these differences which create meaning.
The operation of the human organism is fundamentally the same for each individual, despite minor differences in capabilities. But the exterior of the body - in other words, our external appearance - is autonomous of these operations. All the feelings that we experience - love, passion, trust, friendship, refinement, dignity, hate, like, dislike - are greatly influenced by external attributed such as appearances, skin color (white, black, brown, or yellow), baldness, height, and many other physical traits.
The age of machine had come into existence with the back ground of the industrial society while the age of life was brought in with the background of the informationalized society.
In Japan, non-manufacturing industries already account for more than seventy percent of the GNP. Such non-manufacturing industries as banking, broadcasting, publishing, computer software research, education, design, art, and the service and distribution sectors do not produce goods per so; they produce added value.
Information society and the information industries are based on the production of distinctions and of meaning. People buy clothes based on the added value of their design. A fair percentage of the pianos manufactured are never played; they sit in the living room, keyboards untouched. Such pianos are not purchased to express their function as musical instruments but as symbols that communicate that the purchaser enjoys music, or has the wealth to buy a piano and put it in his living room. In industrial society, this phenomenon is regarded negatively. But in information society these untouched pianos have every reason to exist, since they produce a meaning of their own. This is what Baudrillard advocated of the simulacrum.
Postmodern architecture acutely grasps the transition from industrial society to information society. The postmodern is now regarded with importance in the fields of physics, science, mathematics, and philosophy. It is unfortunate that in architecture the post-modern has been defined in an extremely narrow fashion, as a particular historical style. If the age of the post-modern has gone back to the past age of the historicism, not proceeding into the age of civilisation, there will be no future for the post-modern architecture, The failure of post-modern architecture in this narrow sense also demonstrates that any attempt to return to the modern architecture of the age of the machine will also be without a future.
Just as the plurality of life is created by heredity, architecture acquires plurality through the inheritance of its historical tradition. This inheritance takes place on many levels, and there is no single common method by which it occurs. The Japanese style of architecture called Sukiya employs a method in which historical forms are followed but new techniques and materials are introduced to produce gradual change. The Sukiya architecture of Sen no Rikyu, Furuta Oribe, Kobori Enshu, and, in more recent times, Isoya Yoshida and Togo Murano are all examples of this method. My Sukiya architecture, which I call Hanasuki, is another example of this symbiosis of past and present. In Europe, Palladio's architecture is, like Japan's Sukiya, another example of the inheritance of tradition.
A second method of inheriting tradition is to dissect fragments of historical forms and place them freely throughout works of contemporary architecture, the method of recombining. Following this method, the meaning that the historical forms once held is lost, and in their recombination they acquire a new, multivalent significance. This method is fundamentally different from that of recreating historical architecture.
Yet another method of inheriting the architectural past is to express the invisible ideas, aesthetics, lifestyles, and historical mind sets that lay behind historical symbols and forms. Following this method, the visible historical symbols and forms are manipulated intellectually, creating a mode of expression characterized by abstraction, irony, wit, twists, gaps, sophistication, and metaphor. To read these historical mind sets in the midst of contemporary architecture requires broad knowledge and a sharp sense of humor. Which method of inheriting the historical tradition is selected depends upon the situation in which the works is set. One important point of focus in the transformation from the age of the machine to the age of life is the conversion from standpoints of Eurocentrism and logos-centrism to the symbiosis of different cultures and to ecology.
What Robert Venturi, the father of postmodernism, Michael Graves, and Arata Isozaki all have in common is that they not only lean too far in the direction of the historical, but their work exists as an extension of Eurocentrism. Nor should we ignore that all are subtly influenced by the inferiority complex toward Europe that is common to Japan and the United States alike.
The prejudices of the humanism which was born from logos-centrism, by which human beings look down on all other forms of life, prescribe that human beings are not more than a part of the plurality of life on the planet; they are a separate form of existence. This means there is a close relationship between the age of life and the ecology. The architecture of the age of life will be an architecture open to regional contexts, urban contexts, and nature and the environment. It will move toward a symbiosis of nature and human beings, of the environment and architecture.
In the age of life, the movement will be from dualism to the philosophy of symbiosis. Symbiosis is essentially different from harmony, compromise, amalgamation, or eclecticism. Symbiosis is made possible by recognizing reverence for the sacred zone between different cultures, opposing factors, different elements, between the extremes of dualistic opposition. The sacred zone of another's individuality, or a region's cultural tradition is an unknown region, and though we respect that sacred zone. If our respective sacred zones are too all-encompassing, symbiosis, efforts must be made to achieve extended dialogue, mutual exchange, and to discover other positive contributing factors. The belief that all aspects of a particular people's lives are an inviolable sacred zone, an exclusive type of nationalism or a closed regionalism, are not conductive to achieving symbiosis.
The second condition necessary to achieve symbiosis is the presence of intermediary space. Intermediary space is so important because it allows the tow opposing elements of a dualism to abide by common rules, to reach a common understanding. I call this a tentative understanding. Intermediary space does not exist as a definite thing. It is extremely tentative and dynamic. The presence of intermediate space makes possible a dynamic, vibrant symbiosis that incorporates opposition.
As the mutual penetration and mutual understanding of two opposing elements proceeds, the bounds of the intermediate space are always in motion. This process, because of the presence of intermediate space reveals the life principle itself, in all its ambivalence, multivalence and vagueness. Tolerance, the lack of clear cut boundaries, and the interpenetration of interior and exterior are special features of Japanese art, culture, and architecture. The many essays I have written over three decades on such aspects of Japanese culture as Ma(interval in time of space); Engawa (veranda); the concept of Senu hima, the moment of silence between acting and acting a described by Zeami in his treatises on the Noh drama; street space; Rikyu grey; permeability = transparency; lattices; and Hanasuki have all been attempts to pursue this idea of intermediary space. The Buddhist thought that runs through the base of all Japanese culture is also a philosophy of symbiosis, with the result that there is a strong natural connection between the architecture of the age of life and Japanese culture. That is why my works has run on a double but parallel course, simultaneous pursuit of the principle of life and Japanese culture.
Intermediate space can occasionally act as a stimulus for metamorphosis. Metamorphosis is one of the special features of the life process. A larva is transformed into a butterfly, an egg into a bird, or a fish. There is no life principle more sudden or extreme. Architecturally speaking, gates, atriums, large-scale and other extraordinary spaces move people because they make them perceive some sort of leap into the extraordinary, a sudden drama that cannot be explained by the function of the space alone. Such intermediary spaces as street space, plazas, parks, waterfronts, street scenes, city walls, city gates, rivers, landmark towers, and the urban infrastructures of highways and freeways play a role as stimuli that make possible the existence of individual buildings.
I think it is now clear why, in the thirty-three years since I began my architectural career in 1959, I have chosen metabolism, metamorphosis, and symbiosis as key terms and concepts to express the principle of life.
Philosophies to support the establishment of an architecture of the age of life can indeed be found in the history of Western society, but in the face of the tradition of dualism and objective rationalism they are in the extremely small minority. Unlike Plato and Aristotle, who represent the mainstream of ancient Greek thought, Democritus, Critias, and Epicurus, taught an atomic naturalism of atoms in the world order. Leibniz, Spinoza, and Wittgenstein expounded a natural science in which nature is inside us and possesses the power to create us. Heidegger advocated an ontology of a "culture of hearing" as opposed to the mainstream Western "culture os sight". Merleau-Ponty posited an ambivalence of the human body as opposed to Descartes mind-body dualism. Levi-Strauss exposed the relativity of cultural values with his theory of structuralism. Deleuze and Guattari proposed the rhizome as a model for a new order of multiplicity and variety. Baudrillard spoke of autonomy of the facade and the death of the economy. Derrida advocated the deconstruction of Eurocentrism and logos-centrism. Julia Kristeva imagined a plural "I" which she called a polylogue. The mathematician David Boehm discovered "implicated order", which explains phenomena of the natural world previously thought to be random in terms of a non-linear analysis. Mandel invented a fractal geometry. Arthur Koestler conceived of the Holon, a symbiosis of part and whole. Prigogine's Dissipative Structure. Haken's Synergetics and Adorno's non-identity, which rejects the whole. Foucault urged the deconstruction of modern rationality and departure from the center. Umberto Eco wrote the exciting The Name of the Rose and Foucalt's Pendulum. Post-Webern serial music composers such as Stockhausen and Boulez, who just died, made their contribution as well. While the philosophy and science of the age of the machine were based on axioms of a Bourbakian system, the philosophy, science, literature, and music of the age of life will all be problematic, and linked to the philosophy of symbiosis that I have advocated these past three decades.
Not only science and philosophy but technology as well is facing a major transformation as the age of life dawns. While the technology of the machine age, of the age modern architecture was a visible technology represented by the steam engine and the automobile, the main players in the technology of the age of life will be communications, bio-technology, genetic engineering, and other invisible technologies. As opposed to the high-tech architecture of the age of the machine, created as a metaphor for the machine, the high-tech architecture of the age of life will be faced with the extremely difficult problem of expressing invisible technologies. The autonomy of the facade will allow for the birth of a new symbolic architecture. The expression of technology will proceed on a parallel course with the autonomy of the facade in architecture of the age of life, while the spirit of the invisible technologies of the age of life will be abstractly or symbolically expressed.
My own architecture will continue to pursue the architecture of the age of life, based on the three key concepts of metabolism, metamorphosis, and symbiosis.
1. Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso (1876-1944)
Ideological founder of Futurism
Major work : Mafarka il futurista
2. Murano, Togo (1891-1984)
Major works : World Peace Memorial Hall, Nihon Seimei Hiniya Building
Awards : Order of Cultural Merits, Japan Art Academy Award, Blue Ribbon Medal
3. Shirai, Seiichi (1905-1983)
Major works : Head Office, Shinwa Bank, Shoto Museum
Awards : Kotaro Takamura Award, Japan Architecture Academy Award
4. Maekawa, Kunio (1905-1986)
Major works : Nippon Sogo Bank, Tokyo Metropolitan Museum
Awards : Japan Art Academy Award, Mainichi Art Award, Japan Architecture Academy Award
5. Tange, Kenzo (1913- )
Major works : Olympic Yoyogi Gymnasium, Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office
Awards:Japan Architecture Academy Award, Order of Cultural Merits,
Royal Gold Medal for Architecture, RIBA
6.Isozaki, Arata (1931- )
Major works : Saint Jordi Sports Palace (Barcelona), Art Tower Mito
Awards : The Prize of Architectural Institute of Japan for design,
Royal Gold Medal for Architecture, RIBA
7. Rostow, Walt Whitman (1916- )
Special aide during the Dennedy era
Works include : The Stages of Economic Growth
8. Hollein, Hans (1934- )
Major works : Jewellers Shop Schullin I & II, Austrian Travel Agencies, Vienna
Awards : Reymolds Memorial Award, German Architecture Award
9. Chomsky, Auram Noam (1928- )
His theory of transformational generative grammar has had a profound impact
on the field of linguistics.
Major works : Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, Language and Mind
10. Rogers, Richard (1933- )
Major works : Georges Pompidou Centre (Paris), Lloyd's Building (London)
Awards : Royal Gold Medal for Architecture,
Chevalier, l'Ordre National de la Legion d'Honneur
11. Piano, Renzo (1937- )
Major works : The Kansai International Airport (Osaka),
The Italian Institute of Culture (Tokyo)
Awards : Chevalier, l'Ordre National de la Legion d'Honneur
12. Foster, Norman (1935- )
Major works : Century Tower (Tokyo), Hong Kong Bank Headquarter (Hong Kong)
Awards : Royal Gold Medal for Architecture, RIBA, Japan Design Foundation Award
13. Ledoux, Claude-Nicolas (1736-1806)
French Neoclassicist architect
Representative work : Les barriered (customhouse) in Paris
14. Husserl, Edmund (1859-1938)
Works include : Cartesian Meditations,
Die Krisis der Europaischen Wissenschaften und die Transzendentale Phanomenologie
15. Galilei, Galileo (1564-1642)
Italian physicist and astronomer
Discovered constancy of a pendulum's period. Completed the telescope in 1609.
Discovered satellites of Jupiter, rings of Saturn, Sunspots.
Proved Copernican theory.
Works include : Dialogue Concerning the Tow Chief World Systems
Discorsi intorno a due nuove scienze
16. Newton, Isacc (1642-1727)
English mathematician, physicist and astronomer
Research included rule of universal gravitation
Works include : Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (Principia)
17. Lavoisier, Antonie Laurent (1743-1794)
Established theory of combustion.
Regarded as father of modern chemistry.
Major works : Traite Elementaire de Chemie,
Memoires de Chimie et de Physique
18. Darwin, Charles Robert (1809-1982)
Cruised the southern hemisphere, observing geology and plant and animal life
Published Journal of researches into the natural history and geology
of the countries visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the world in 1939.
In 1959 published treatise on theory of evolution, Origin of the Species.
19. Plato (BC 428-348)
Formed theory of eternal ideas: opposed Sophist doctrines.
Major works : The Republic, Laws, Phaedo, Crito
20. Descartes, Rene (1596-1650)
Aimed for a unitary universal science using geometrical method.
Regarded as father of modern philosophy
based on such works as Discourse on Method and Meditations.
21. Habermas, Jurgen (1929- )
Theorist representative of the Frankfurt school in the postwar era.
22. Democritus (BC 460-370)
Greatest naturalist philosopher of ancient Greece
Developed and systematized atomic theory of the universe.
23. Critius (BC 5 - ?)
Roman politician, friend and disciple of Socrates
One of Plato's most famous dialogues, the Crito, is named for him.
This represents Crito's dialogue with Socrates on the nature of citizenship
and a citizen's duty to obey the law.
24. Epicurus (BC 341-270)
Founded school in Mytilene about 311. B.C.
Respected as one who advocated relief to the soul. Taught that ataraxia,
seeking pleasure and avoiding disturbance and pain, is the supreme good.
25. Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von (1646-1716)
German philosopher and mathematician
In 1675 single-handedly established calculus.
Major work : Metaphysics
26. Spinoza, Baruch de (1632-1677)
Used geometrical methods to develop deductively a consummate theory of monism
and pantheism in which mind and matter were seen as aspects of God.
Major work : Ethica (Ethics Demonstrated in Geometrical Order)
27. Writtgenstein, Ludwig (1889-1951)
Active mainly in England
Claimed that philosophy was not theory but linguistic criticism,
a "language game" analyzing the relationship of language to the world.
Major work : Philosophical investigations
28. Deleuz, Gilles (1925- )
Major work : Difference et Repetition
Anti-Oedipus; Capitalism and Schizophrenia
29. Prigogine, Ilya (1917- )
Belgian physicist and scientist
Born in Moscow
Pursue a unified physics/chemistry of nonequilibrium open systems.
Discovered dissipative structures, reactions in biochemistry that increase
in complexity rather than decrease,
thus providing a theoretical framework for the origin of life.
Received Nobel prize for chemistry in 1977.
30. Haken, Hermann (1927- )
Leader in theory of biophysics in Post-World War2 West Germany Created
synergetics, arguing spontaneous creation of order in a random system.
Major work : Synergetics; Nonequilibium phase transitions and
self-organization in physics, chemistry and biology
31. Adonno, Theodor Wiesengrund (1903-1969)
German esthetician and sociologist
Fled to America to escape Nazi persecution.
Wrote The Authoritarian Personality, and returned to Germany in 1949.
Established Social Research Institute together with Max Horkheimer.
32. Eco, Umberto (1932- )
Important member of New Avant Garde school
33. Stockhausen, Karlheinz (1928- )
German composer and theorist
Creates electronic music with Cologne's electronic music studio,
which he confounded.
34. Boulez, Pierre (1925- )
French Composer and conductor
In 1971 became musical director of the New York Philharmonic
and BBC Symphony Orchestra.